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Bibliographic Index

EMS in General

1. Binder-Macleod SA, Halden EE, Jungles KA. Effects of stimulation intensity on the physiological responses of human motor units. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1995;27(4):556-65.  

2. Vanderthommen M, Duchateau J. Electrical stimulation as a modality to improve performance of the neuromuscular system. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2007;35(4):180-5.  

3. Delitto A, Brown M, Strube MJ, Rose SJ, Lehman RC. Electrical stimulation of quadriceps femoris in an elite weight lifter: a single subject experiment. Int J Sports Med. 1989;10(3):187-91.  

4. Francis C. Electronic Muscle Stimulation in the Training Model. 2008. Available at:

5. Dahmane R, Valenčič V, Knez N, Eržen I. Evaluation of the ability to make non-invasive estimation of muscle contractile properties on the basis of the muscle belly response. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing. 2001;39(1):51-55.  

6. Matheson GO, Dunlop RJ, McKenzie DC, Smith CF, Allen PS. Force output and energy metabolism during neuromuscular electrical stimulation: a 31P-NMR study. Scand J Rehabil Med. 1997;29(3):175-80.  

7. MacIntosh BR, Willis JC. Force-frequency relationship and potentiation in mammalian skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol. 2000;88(6):2088-2096.  

8. Nuhr M, Crevenna R, Gohlsch B, et al. Functional and biochemical properties of chronically stimulated human skeletal muscle. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;89(2):202-8.  

9. Knaflitz M, Merletti R, De Luca CJ. Inference of motor unit recruitment order in voluntary and electrically elicited contractions. J Appl Physiol. 1990;68(4):1657-1667.  

10. Adams GR, Harris RT, Woodard D, Dudley GA. Mapping of electrical muscle stimulation using MRI. J Appl Physiol. 1993;74(2):532-7.  

11. Trimble M, Enoka R. Mechanisms underlying the training effects associated with neuromuscular electrical stimulation. PHYS THER. 1991;71(4):273-280.  

12. Binder-Macleod SA, Lee SC, Fritz AD, Kucharski LJ. New look at force-frequency relationship of human skeletal muscle: effects of fatigue. J Neurophysiol. 1998;79(4):1858-68.  

13. Gregory CM, Bickel CS. Recruitment Patterns in Human Skeletal Muscle During Electrical Stimulation. PHYS THER. 2005;85(4):358-364.  

14. Shkuratova N. Russian electrical stimulation: the early experiments. (Perspective). - Free Online Library. American Physical Therapy Association. 2002. Available at: [Accessed February 22, 2009].

15. Baldwin KM, Haddad F. Skeletal muscle plasticity: cellular and molecular responses to altered physical activity paradigms. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;81(11 Suppl):S40-51.  

16. Dahmane R, Djordjevič S, Šimunič B, Valenčič V. Spatial fiber type distribution in normal human muscle : : Histochemical and tensiomyographical evaluation. Journal of Biomechanics. 2005;38(12):2451-2459.  

17. Armstrong WJ, Nestle HN, Grinnell DC, et al. The acute effect of whole-body vibration on the hoffmann reflex. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(2):471-6.  

18. Gorman PH, Mortimer JT. The effect of stimulus parameters on the recruitment characteristics of direct nerve stimulation. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 1983;30(7):407-14.  


20. Delitto A, Snyder-Mackler L. Two theories of muscle strength augmentation using percutaneous electrical stimulation. Phys Ther. 1990;70(3):158-64.  

21. Pette D, Vrbová G. What does chronic electrical stimulation teach us about muscle plasticity? Muscle Nerve. 1999;22(6):666-77.  

EMS in Sport

1. Maffiuletti NA, Pensini M, Martin A. Activation of human plantar flexor muscles increases after electromyostimulation training. J Appl Physiol. 2002;92(4):1383-92.  

2. Millet GY, Millet GP, Lattier G, Maffiuletti NA, Candau R. Alteration of neuromuscular function after a prolonged road cycling race. Int J Sports Med. 2003;24(3):190-4.  

3. Millet GY, Lepers R, Maffiuletti NA, et al. Alterations of neuromuscular function after an ultramarathon. J Appl Physiol. 2002;92(2):486-92.  

4. Beck T. Applications of Surface Electromyography
In Strength and Conditioning. NSCA Paper.

5. Boerio D, Jubeau M, Zory R, Maffiuletti NA. Central and peripheral fatigue after electrostimulation-induced resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(6):973-8.  

6. Zory R, Boërio D, Jubeau M, Maffiuletti NA. Central and peripheral fatigue of the knee extensor muscles induced by electromyostimulation. Int J Sports Med. 2005;26(10):847-53.  

7. Binder-Macleod SA, McDermond LR. Changes in the force-frequency relationship of the human quadriceps femoris muscle following electrically and voluntarily induced fatigue. Phys Ther. 1992;72(2):95-104.  

8. Jubeau M, Sartorio A, Marinone PG, et al. Comparison between voluntary and stimulated contractions of the quadriceps femoris for growth hormone response and muscle damage. J Appl Physiol. 2008;104(1):75-81.  

9. Maffiuletti NA, Herrero AJ, Jubeau M, Impellizzeri FM, Bizzini M. Differences in Electrical Stimulation Thresholds between Men and Women. Ann Neurol. 2008;63(4):507-12.  

10. Maffiuletti NA, Dugnani S, Folz M, Di Pierno E, Mauro F. Effect of combined electrostimulation and plyometric training on vertical jump height. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(10):1638-44.  

11. Maffiuletti NA, Pensini M, Scaglioni G, et al. Effect of electromyostimulation training on soleus and gastrocnemii H- and T-reflex properties. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003;90(5-6):601-7.  

12. Malatesta D, Cattaneo F, Dugnani S, Maffiuletti NA. Effects of electromyostimulation training and volleyball practice on jumping ability. J Strength Cond Res. 2003;17(3):573-9.  

13. Babault N, Cometti G, Bernardin M, Pousson M, Chatard J. Effects of electromyostimulation training on muscle strength and power of elite rugby players. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21(2):431-437.  

14. Herrero JA, Izquierdo M, Maffiuletti NA, García-López J. Electromyostimulation and plyometric training effects on jumping and sprint time. Int J Sports Med. 2006;27(7):533-9.  

15. Brocherie F, Babault N, Cometti G, Maffiuletti N, Chatard J. Electrostimulation training effects on the physical performance of ice hockey players. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(3):455-60.  

16. Maffiuletti NA, Bramanti J, Jubeau M, et al. Feasibility and efficacy of progressive electrostimulation strength training for competitive tennis players. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(2):677-82.  

17. Sartorio A, Jubeau M, Agosti F, et al. GH responses to two consecutive bouts of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in healthy adults. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008;158(3):311-6.  

18. Jubeau M, Zory R, Gondin J, Martin A, Maffiuletti NA. Late neural adaptations to electrostimulation resistance training of the plantar flexor muscles. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006;98(2):202-11.  

19. Maffiuletti NA, Zory R, Miotti D, et al. Neuromuscular adaptations to electrostimulation resistance training. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2006;85(2):167-75.  

20. Jubeau M, Gondin J, Martin A, Sartorio A, Maffiuletti NA. Random motor unit activation by electrostimulation. Int J Sports Med. 2007;28(11):901-4.  

21. Zatsiorsky VM, Kraemer WJ. Science and Practice of Strength Training, Second Edition. 2nd ed. Human Kinetics Publishers; 2006.  

22. Maffiuletti NA, Cometti G, Amiridis IG, et al. The effects of electromyostimulation training and basketball practice on muscle strength and jumping ability. Int J Sports Med. 2000;21(6):437-43.  

23. Maffiuletti NA. The use of electrostimulation exercise in competitive sport. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2006;1(4):406-7.  

EMS in Rehabilitation

1. Fitzgerald GK, Piva SR, Irrgang JJ. A modified neuromuscular electrical stimulation protocol for quadriceps strength training following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2003;33(9):492-501.  

2. Lyons CL, Robb JB, Irrgang JJ, Fitzgerald GK. Differences in Quadriceps Femoris Muscle Torque When Using a Clinical Electrical Stimulator Versus a Portable Electrical Stimulator. PHYS THER. 2005;85(1):44-51.  

3. Rebai H, Barra V, Laborde A, et al. Effects of two electrical stimulation frequencies in thigh muscle after knee surgery. Int J Sports Med. 2002;23(8):604-9.  


5. Mizner RL, Petterson SC, Snyder-Mackler L. Quadriceps strength and the time course of functional recovery after total knee arthroplasty. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2005;35(7):424-436.  

6. Snyder-Mackler L, Delitto A, Bailey SL, Stralka SW. Strength of the quadriceps femoris muscle and functional recovery after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. A prospective, randomized clinical trial of electrical stimulation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1995;77(8):1166-1173.  

EMS in Sport Recovery

1. Bosak A. Active Versus Passive Recovery in the 72 Hours After a 5-km Race. The Sport Journal. 2008. Available at: [Accessed August 13, 2009].

2. Sankoff J. DOMS. Triathlete. 2007.

3. Tessitore A, Meeusen R, Pagano R, et al. Effectiveness of active versus passive recovery strategies after futsal games. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(5):1402-12.  

4. Tessitore A, Meeusen R, Cortis C, Capranica L. Effects of different recovery interventions on anaerobic performances following preseason soccer training. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21(3):745-50.  

5. Lattier G, Millet GY, Martin A, Martin V. Fatigue and recovery after high-intensity exercise part I: neuromuscular fatigue. Int J Sports Med. 2004;25(6):450-6.  

6. Lattier G, Millet GY, Martin A, Martin V. Fatigue and recovery after high-intensity exercise. Part II: Recovery interventions. Int J Sports Med. 2004;25(7):509-515.  

7. Petterson SC, Mizner RL, Stevens JE, et al. Improved function from progressive strengthening interventions after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized clinical trial with an imbedded prospective cohort. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;61(2):174-83.  

8. Andersson H, Raastad T, Nilsson J, et al. Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in elite female soccer: effects of active recovery. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(2):372-380.  

9. Bishop PA, Jones E, Woods AK. Recovery from training: a brief review. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(3):1015-24.  

Muscle properties and EMS

1. Ding J, Wexler AS, Binder-Macleod SA. A mathematical model that predicts the force-frequency relationship of human skeletal muscle. Muscle Nerve. 2002;26(4):477-85.  

2. Enoka RM. Activation order of motor axons in electrically evoked contractions. Muscle & Nerve. 2002;25(6):763-764.  

3. Vrbova G, Hudlicka O, Schaefer Centofanti K. Application of Muscle-Nerve Stimulation in Health and Disease. Springer; 2008.  

4. Robinson AJ, Snyder-Mackler L. Clinical Electrophysiology: Electrotherapy and Electrophysiologic Testing. Third Edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007.  

5. Muthalib M, Jubeau M, Millet G, Maffiuletti N, Nosaka K. Comparison between electrically evoked and voluntary isometric contractions for biceps brachii muscle oxidative metabolism using near-infrared spectroscopy. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2009;107(2):235-241.  

6. HENRIKSSON-LARSEN K, FRIDEN J, WRETLING M. Distribution of fibre sizes in human skeletal muscle. An enzyme histochemical study in m tibialis anterior. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. 1985;123(2):171-177.  

7. Scaglioni G, Narici MV, Maffiuletti NA, Pensini M, Martin A. Effect of ageing on the electrical and mechanical properties of human soleus motor units activated by the H reflex and M wave. J Physiol. 2003;548(Pt 2):649-61.  

8. Lepers R, Millet GY, Maffiuletti NA. Effect of cycling cadence on contractile and neural properties of knee extensors. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(11):1882-8.  

9. Maffiuletti NA, Martin A, Babault N, et al. Electrical and mechanical H(max)-to-M(max) ratio in power- and endurance-trained athletes. J Appl Physiol. 2001;90(1):3-9.  

10. Bottinelli R. Functional heterogeneity of mammalian single muscle fibres: do myosin isoforms tell the whole story? Pflugers Arch. 2001;443(1):6-17.  

11. Bottinelli R, Reggiani C. Human skeletal muscle fibres: molecular and functional diversity. Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology. 2000;73(2-4):195-262.  

12. Enoka RM. Muscle strength and its development. New perspectives. Sports Med. 1988;6(3):146-68.  

13. Vrbova G. Nerve-Muscle Interaction. 2nd ed. London: Chapman & Hall; 1995:256.  

14. Lepers R, Maffiuletti NA, Rochette L, Brugniaux J, Millet GY. Neuromuscular fatigue during a long-duration cycling exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2002;92(4):1487-93.  

15. Rectangular hyperbola fitted to muscle force-velocity data using three-dimensional regression analysis -- Wohlfart and Edman 79 (2): 235 -- Experimental Physiology. Available at: [Accessed April 11, 2009].

16. Ahtiainen JP, Pakarinen A, Alen M, Kraemer WJ, Häkkinen K. Short vs. long rest period between the sets in hypertrophic resistance training: influence on muscle strength, size, and hormonal adaptations in trained men. J Strength Cond Res. 2005;19(3):572-82.  

17. Lepers R, Pousson ML, Maffiuletti NA, Martin A, Van Hoecke J. The effects of a prolonged running exercise on strength characteristics. Int J Sports Med. 2000;21(4):275-80.  

18. Maffiuletti NA, Martin A, Van Hoecke J, Schieppati M. The relative contribution to the plantar-flexor torque of the soleus motor units activated by the H reflex and M response in humans. Neurosci Lett. 2000;288(2):127-30.